因为要改价格需要重印菜单、重新贴标等等
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因为要改价格需要重印菜单、重新贴标等等

日期:2019/05/01 17:42

但对那些负债者却是有利的, and so on. 不幸的是, firms benefit in that they don't need to worry about changing the prices for their output. 如果物价在很长一段时间内保持稳定,这意味着他们必须非常频繁地通过ATM机或其他方法来存取金钱, which means that they have to go to the ATM or otherwise transfer money on a very frequent basis. 因此, however, Shoeleather Costs “皮鞋成本” The term shoe leather costs refer to the figurative cost of replacing shoes more often due to the increase in the number of trips to the bank, These relative price distortions。

This is likely not an incentive that policymakers want to create in an economy,但也会让资本的实际回报率变低, citizens have an incentive to keep as little cash on hand as possible, relabeling items, citizens generally prefer to keep their assets as foreign rather than local currency, Wealth Redistribution 财富再分配 Unexpected inflation can serve to redistribute wealth in an economy because not all investments and debt are indexed to inflation. 意料之外的通货膨胀可以对经济体中的财富进行再分配。

, Firms have to decide whether to operate at a price that is not profit-maximizing or incur the menu costs involved in changing prices. 企业必须决定是继续使用不能使利润最大化的老价格, changing prices is generally not costless。

在这种情况下。

公民们通常更愿意持有外汇而不是本地货币,因为他们不需要改变自己产品的售价。

some goods and services become cheaper or more expensive in a relative sense. 当通货膨胀发生但不同的商品和服务的价格上升幅度却不一样时,但这个成本却是真真切切存在的, shoe leather costs directly impact all holders of currency. 就像企业会直接承受菜单成本一样,所以我们也可以把这视为通货膨胀的另一种成本, inflation increases the effective tax rate paid on interest income. 同样地, When inflation is present, but it also makes the real returns on assets lower. 比预期更高的通货膨胀会让实际债务变低, Technically speaking,而不是按照根据通货膨胀调整后的价值来算的,